Saturday, March 23, 2013

Calculator of Design Factors of Pump Storage Plant

Different design factors of Pump Storage Plant can be calculated with the following software.

The software can help students,researchers,engineers to calculate the specific speed,submergence,Potential of Cavitation in the flow and efficiency of pumped storage plants along with the L/h ratio to find the economic requirements of the plant if Normal Speed,Generation and Pump Efficiency,frequency factor,gross head are known.

The Software can calculate :

Specific Speed from Normal Speed,Discharge and Gross Head
Submergence from Specific Speed and head
Overall Efficiency of Pumped Storage Plant from Generator and Pump Efficiency,k value,Gross Head and Discharge.
Potential of Cavitation is estimated from Critical Cavitation,Effective,Suction and Barometric head of water.
The economic requirements of the pumped storage plant can be estimated from dividing Length of Tail Race by Effective Head.Lesser is the ration more economical will be the Pump Storage Plant.


Potential of KVL,KCL and Graph Theory for Finding loss in Pipe Networks

To find the loss of pressure or flow within a pipeline we can use the concept of graph theory and Mason Gain Formula where gain can be equivalent to flow resistance.

Kirchoff's Current and Voltage Law can also be used to solve pipe line problems where Voltage can be replaced by Tanks/Reservoirs,resistance by friction loss and current with flow of water.

The circuit losses like capacitance can be compared to surge tanks and inductance may be replaced by the eddy flows which often causes the hammering in the pipeline.

Such methods can easily determine the value of losses within a pipeline if flow and potential is known or vice-versa and necessary scale corrections are applied without the requirements of data and knowledge of computations.

Tuesday, March 12, 2013

Importance of Coordinate Systems in GIS

The first step in developing an interactive map linked to relevant data that you want to represent is to select the coordinate system with which you want to work.The tip is if you are working in a global scale use the global coordinate systems.

If you are working within a country use the local coordinate systems.If the scale of you work is within the district/state then use cadastral maps.

A single point can be represented by x and y axis of your paper,height and width of your room or even the global coordinate systems.Each of the representation will be correct but the resolution will be effected.In x and y axis of your paper the resolution will be best,in the height and width of your room resolution will be medium and in the global axis it will be poor.

That is why there are various types of coordinate systems and they are utilized based on the spatial scale at which you are working.

Classification of Neural Networks Part 1

The ANN networks can be classified based on direction of signal flow,training algorithms,activation functions,network topology etc.

All the neural networks can be classified into Supervised,Unsupervised and Reinforcement Class based on the learning method i.e.,training procedures it has adopted.With respect to direction of signal flow such kind of models can be grouped into feed-forward and feedback sub-groups.

Based on number of layers neural networks can be subdivided into Single,Multi-layer and Recurrent Neural Networks.

Monday, March 11, 2013

Reusing waste water from residential houses

Waste water from residential homes can be transferred to industries after natural purification.

In industry, quality of water is not important issue except degree of hardness which can corrode their instruments.This type of water may be supplied without following any treatment procedures.

This waste water can be used for washing purpose and may also as a raw material and thus reducing the demand for fresh water.